TL;DR It is suitable for all STEM fields. In data science too. You can use git when writing in LaTeX (or Markdown).
It is PERFECT with connection with R. I use it mostly (hm.. about 8 years in computer/computational/data science), it saves me a lot of time! For relatively simple documents AND for publishing directly to the web I use Markdown (md) - try online. For reports, books with equations, and specific needs (generally more demanding and more complicated - (cross)refferences, citations etc) I use LaTeX for typesetting.
You can use R or Python with Markdown when using Jupyter. R code can be directly embedded into LaTeX using knitr. You save time, because you do not have to copy&paste code snippets, charts, tables, results of calculation - they can be inserted into text on-the-fly :) Very useful when you want to do analysis in the same way, in reproducible way - generate identical reports when data changes... just replacing data source.
Using tikz you can also make animated pictures or charts, diagrams etc (with the help of TikzEdt/Geogebra). With Beamer you can make presentation with different themes (here or here) (or with powerdot). You can even write in the same time a book/script and presentation in LaTex (this is only difference in compiling)!
You can try LaTeX online with Overleaf or Papeeria (for example). Overleaf has good support and templates for LaTex documents.
Take a look at this Coursera course. all what is shown there in md can be also written in LaTeX
Personally, I use TexStudio for local work with LaTex, synchronized with repo in Gitlab - connected with projects on Overleaf. This also lets me collaborate while writing documents with others.
When making computations, data science - (prototypes) I use Jupyter (md+R/Py) or R-studio (R+LaTeX - .rnw or .snw files or R+md - .rmd files) with knitr library. To make final reports, books when necessary I convert md to tex with pandoc and make fine-tuning with LaTeX.
It tooks some time to learn it, but later it saves you a lot of time. And final documents are ... beautiful.
If you need more info - drop me a line.