Terminology would be one thing you'd have to learn regardless, so something like an intro finance course. Khan Academy is supposed to have a good one, as well as this Schiller course:
Research is a very broad category; you can do research on specific stocks, stock sectors, parts of the economy, or more quantitative technical research. Trading can vary from trading based on fundamentals or trading purely on algorithmic signals at shops like Jane Street. I'd say if you want to get into research really make sure you understand financial products and lingo. If you want to get into trading get a decent grasp of probability and ability to make decisions when faced with risk.
One resource that I found surprisingly good is Shrekeli's intro to finance videos, where he basically outlines the thinking of financial analysis and valuation.
Beyond this, I have a pdf of key papers in finance somewhere, I will look for it and edit my comment later.
Paper found here. You can read the commodity ones too, but its not necessary, I just found these while doing some research on commodities.