Yes, you can do just about everything with only python.
Most of the topics fall under the umbrella of operations research. I don't know if your are interested out of just pure curiosity,but these topics have many applications in industry if you are looking for career direction, particularly in scheduling, logistics, data science, and general optimization. I could perhaps give more relevant advice if I knew your interests and background better.
Heuristic-based local search is a technique in discrete optimization.
Here's a course I took that helped explain discrete optimization, including a section on local search techniques. https://www.coursera.org/learn/discrete-optimization. The assignments aren't very clearly structured imo but lectures are good.
Neural Networks are a way to approximate the relationship between inputs and output as a nonlinear function. Here is an introductory course I took a while back on machine learning that I would highly recommend: https://www.coursera.org/learn/machine-learning. And a follow up course: https://www.coursera.org/learn/neural-networks-deep-learning
https://www.datacamp.com has many good courses for building models in python, particularly relating to data science.
Both of those websites charge about $30/month for unlimited courses. A couple other buzzwords that might be worth looking into are Monte Carlo Simulations, newton's method, gradient descent, game theory. Here is a lighter documentary on alphaGO, a program developed by google that beat the world champion in Go: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9gzMQOa5MD4. And if you are more interested in the AI side of things I would highly recommend this playlist on reinforcement learning by deepmind: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2pWv7GOvuf0&list=PLqYmG7hTraZDM-OYHWgPebj2MfCFzFObQ.